TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT

TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT.

TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT.

Running Head: APA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE 1

MIAMI REGIONAL COLLEGE

APA Style Manual, 6th Edition

Quick Reference Guide

APA style has a series of rules about Format, Writing Style, Citations, and References

FORMAT

The format is a standardized method of writing a paper. Your paper should include four major sections: the title page, abstract, main body of text, and references.

Spacing

Lines are double-spaced, including title page and references page.

Font

Times New Roman, 12 point

Margins

1” for top, bottom, right and left margins on all pages, left justified. Indent first line of paragraphs a half inch (12 spaces). Do not use extra double spacing between paragraphs.

TITLE PAGE (PAGE 1) – Contains the following information, centered on the page, double spaced:

Running Head and page number

Full Title

Writer

Course

Dr. Uliana Gancea

Miami Regional College

Date

Title

Upper and lower case letters and no more than 12 words.

Running Head

Top of first page only. To create a running head, insert page number flush right. Then type “Running

head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left.

ABSTRACT (PAGE 2) – Center the word “Abstract”. Begin writing the abstract on the next line. Do not indent. Abstract should include the research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis and conclusions, implications of research, and future work. Abstract should be a single paragraph and should have maximum 150 words.

Header

Top of every page. To create a page header, insert page numbers flush right. Then type “TITLE OF

YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left.

WRITING STYLE

TEXT (PAGE 3 -?) – The text of your paper should begin on page 3 unless your professor requires a table of contents.

Point of View and Voice

You should write using the third person point of view (“The study showed…”). Papers should be written

using the active voice (“Wakowski (2010) conducted research…”.

Clarity and Conciseness

Papers should be written in clear and concise language. Avoid wordy or unnecessarily complex sentences. Sentences should be specific with enough details to adequately help readers understand. Eliminate unnecessary words and condense information.

Use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language that does not risk confusing the reader. Avoid slang and jargon.

Avoid using language suggesting something has been proven, such as “proves” or “proof”. Research papers do not prove theory or hypotheses. Use words like “suggests” or “indicates”.

Biased Language

Avoid biased forms of language concerning race, disability, and sexuality. Avoid using labels to identify

individuals or groups of people. Instead call people what they prefer to be called. It is preferable to not use pronouns because they can confuse the reader. Replace pronouns with nouns (person, individual, etc) or use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels (“elderly people” rather than just “the elderly”).

Headings

There are 5 heading levels in APA to separate and classify paper sections. The 6th edition of the APA

manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:

APA Headings

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2

Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3

Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period.

4

Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.

5

Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.

APA Q U I CK RE F ER E NCE G U I DE 3

Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which do not, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:

Methods (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2) Participant Population (Level 2)

Teachers. (Level 3)

Students. (Level 3)

Results (Level 1)

Spatial Ability (Level 2)

Test One. (level 3)

Teachers with experience. (Level 4)

Teachers in Training. (Level 4)

Test Two. (Level 3)

Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2)

In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper. Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.

Heading information courtesy of OWL. Purdue University Online Writing Lab [OWL]. (2009, October 24). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved

October 29, 2009, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/printable/560/

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

In-text citations are placed in parentheses within the text of the paper to document source of information. In-text citations include work that is either a direct quotation or paraphrase.

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes > Quotation marks, page # Paraphrases > No quotation marks, no page #

DIRECT QUOTATION – using exact words from a source

Use quotation marks “ ”

Include page # or paragraph #

Book, Magazine, Journal article:

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #) Ex: (Smith, 2009, p. 12)

Webpage article w Multiple Authors with TWO authors:

(Author, copyright OR last update, para. #) Ex: (Jones, 2009, para. 3)

Webpage article with NO author:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright OR last update, para. #) Ex: (“Pizzas,” 2009, para. 4)

Multiple Authors with TWO authors: Ex: (Smith & Jones, 2002, p. 3)

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #)

Multiple Authors with 3 – 5 authors:

Cite each author the first time the citation appears Ex. (Jones, Smith, Collins, & Krantz, 2002,

p. 3)

In subsequent citations, cite only the last name Ex. (Jones et al., 2002, p. 1)

of the first author, followed by “et al.”

More Than 6 authors:

Cite only the last name of the first author Ex. (Jones et al., 2002, p. 1)

followed by “et al.” every time the citation

appears

Quoting an Entire Sentence:

Author’s name not given within the sentence:

(Author, publication date, page #)

“A significant number of business professionals are returning to college to earn advanced degrees in order to

increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (Smith, 2002, p. 101).

Author’s name used to introduce a quote:

Introductory phrase with author name (publication date) . . . (page #)

According to Smith (2002), “A significant number of business professionals are returning to college to earn advanced degrees in order to increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (p. 101).

Quoting Part of a Sentence:

Author’s name not given within the sentence:

For many adults, the commitment to obtaining a college degree is motivated by a desire to “increase their earning

power and potential for advancement” (Smith, 2002, p. 101).

Author’s name used to introduce a quote :

Smith (2002) explains that for many adults, the commitment to obtaining a college degree is motivated by a desire

to “increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (p. 101).

NOTE : Before using an author’s name to introduce a quote or paraphrase, you must first introduce the

author to identify this author’s expertise. For example, you might say:

James Smith (2002), author of The New College Landscape, explains that “today’s college student is often an

adult professional with over five years’ experience, married, a parent, and an active volunteer” (p. 12).

Quoting 40 or More Words:

Using block quotation format and indent QUOTE ONLY .5 inch from left margin – do not use quotation marks

Author’s name not given within the sentence used to introduce a quote:

Adult students are often more dedicated to achieving their college education than many traditional students.

Most adult students who make the choice to return to college are accustomed to prioritizing their tasks. These individuals have experienced the demands of juggling their responsibilities and are more willing

and able to take the initiative to succeed in their academic career. (Smith, 2002, p. 121)

Many adults who have excelled in their professional lives know how to apply themselves in their new academic life.

Author’s name used to introduce a quote:

Smith (2002) points out that adult students are often more dedicated to achieving their college education than many traditional students.

Most adult students who make the choice to return to college are accustomed to prioritizing their tasks. These individuals have experienced the demands of juggling their responsibilities and are more willing

and able to take the initiative to succeed in their academic career. (p. 121)

Many adults who have excelled in their professional lives know how to apply themselves in their new academic life.

NOTE : After the initial introduction of the author, you may then use the author’s last name only to introduce the quote or paraphrase, a technique that adds credibility and authority to your sources.

Citing Personal Communication – For letters, memos, e-mail, interviews, cite source in text only. Do not list on References page.

S.U.Varnes (personal communication, May 12, 2001) acknowledges …

PARAPHRASE – Interpreting an idea expressed by author, by restating passage in your own words

No quotation marks used

No page or paragraph #

Book, Magazine, Journal article:

(Author’s last name, publication date) Ex: (Smith, 2009)

Webpage article w/author:

(Author, copyright date OR last update) Ex: (Jones, 2009)

Webpage article with NO author:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright date OR last update) Ex: (“Pizzas,” 2009)

Multiple Authors: with TWO authors: Ex: (Smith & Jones, 2002)

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #)

Multiple Authors: with 3 – 5 authors:

Cite each author the first time the citation appears Ex. (Jones, Smith, Collins, & Krantz, 2002)

In subsequent citations, cite only the last name Ex. (Jones et al., 2002)

of the first author, followed by “et al.”

More Than six (6) authors:

Cite only the last name of the first author followed by Ex. (Jones et al., 2002)

“et al.” every time the citation appears

Author’s name not given within paraphrased sentence:

(Author, publication date – no page #)

The revitalization of many urban neighborhoods has resulted in a substantial increase in property values (Lentz,

2003).

Author’s name used to introduce paraphrase:

Introductory phrase with author name (publication date) . . . (page #)

Urban planner James Lentz (2003) asserts that the revitalization of many urban neighborhoods has resulted in a substantial increase in property values.

PARAPHRASE – DON’T PLAGIARIZE!

Plagiarism is the “use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work” (Stepchyshyn & Nelson, 2007, p. 65). Paraphrasing is reading the work of another author, interpreting it into your own words, and then citing the original source. Three or more consecutive words directly from a source are considered a Direct Quote, and must be cited as a Direct Quote.

Original by author James Baker, published 2003:

A serious dilemma often faced by employees when considering changing jobs, even when the new position is an improvement in their current employment situation, is whether to risk a change in their health insurance coverage, particularly for individuals with pre-existing conditions.

Plagiarism – Passage rewritten, but with only a few words changed:

A serious problem often faced by employees when thinking about changing jobs, even when the new job is better than their current job, is whether to risk getting different health insurance, especially for people with pre-existing conditions (Baker, 2003).

Paraphrased – Passage re-written to express the idea of the author, but in your own words:

For many employees with health problems, often making the decision of whether or not to change jobs is based on the need to maintain the same health insurance coverage and not on the prospect of a better career opportunity (Baker, 2003).

RULE OF THUMB for Using Sources:

Never begin a paragraph with a quote, end a paragraph with a quote, or use back to back quotes –

OFFER YOUR ANALYSIS! DON’T LET THE QUOTE SPEAK FOR ITSELF!

IN-TEXT CITATION – WEBPAGES

The same rules for regular in-text citations apply to webpages, except that page numbers are replaced by paragraph numbers, which are found by counting paragraphs starting at the top of the page.

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes > Quotation marks, para. # Paraphrases > No quotation marks, no para. #

DIRECT QUOTES:

(Author, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

PARAPHRASES:

(Author, update/copyright date)

1. If no author — give shortened article title. If no article title –give website name (NOT URL!)

2. If no date for website — put n.d.

3. Hand number paragraphs — when citing Direct Quotes

Direct Quote

(Author, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

The use of “pizza toppings that seem bizarre to current tastes, such as squid and octopus, were common

in the fishing areas of the Mediterranean sea” (Smith, 1998, para. 5).

Direct Quote – from article entitled “Pizzas of the World,” from website called PizzaLore, No author given:

(“Shortened article title”, update/copyright date, para. #)

The use of “pizza toppings that seem bizarre to current tastes, such as squid and octopus, were common in the fishing areas of the Mediterranean Sea” (“Pizzas,” 1998, para. 5).

Direct Quote – from website called PizzaLore, No author or article title given:

(Website name, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

Many culinary archaeologists have determined that “the making of pizza was actually an accident”

(PizzaLore, 1998, para. 5).

REFERENCES

All research papers must contain a reference page with is a list of references (all sources cited in the paper,) starting on a new page after the body of the paper.

The References page should contain full publication information (see examples below). Only sources cited in the body of the paper should appear on the References page.

REFERENCE PAGE FORMAT

Center title “References” typed lower case, no underline, no italics

Page numbering should be continued in the upper right corner of the Reference page.

For each entry in the list, the first line begins at the left margin and all following lines are indented a half inch or twelve spaces.

Lines are double-spaced.

Alphabetize by first word of entry (author’s last name; title if no author)

If there are two or more entries for the same author, arrange by year of publication with the earliest one first. If the entries are for the same year, use lowercase letters (a, b, c) with the year.

Do not utilize any underlining or quotation marks for titles. Book titles, magazine/journal titles and volume (issue) number are to be in italics only.

Websites are not to be underlined. Hyperlinks should be removed.

Capitalize journal or magazine titles.

Capitalize only the first word of the title of a book or article, except for proper nouns.

EXAMPLES – REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES

(Examples are single-spaced; actual reference list is double spaced.) The following entries are examples

of the most commonly used research sources. Refer directly to the APA Manual for additional examples of Reference list entries.

Book with One Author:

Author, A.A. (year of publication). Book Title. City published, State Initials (if applicable – see APA Style Guide, states are not always included): Name of Publisher.

Jones, S. (2010). The Jones Chronicles. Boston: Smith Publishing Company.

Book with Two or More Authors:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year of Publication). Book Title. City published, State Initials (if applicable): Name of

Publisher.

Jones, S., & Smith, J. (2010). The History of Miami Regional University. Washington, DC: Jones and Smith

Publishing.

Book with Three to Six Authors:

Miller, J., Kramer, P., Cane, L. & Font, M. (2010). How to Be a Business Partner. New York: Harlan

Publishers.

Book with More Than Six authors:

Logan, P., Smith, U., Lenz, R., Tome, M., Fox, P., Jones, M., et al. (2010). Elements of Real Estate

Transactions. Boston: Ridgeworth Publishers.

Edited Book:

Jones, S., & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2010). The History of Miami Regional University (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Jones and Smith Publishing.

Article/Essay in an Edited Book:

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Article/essay title. Book editor’s name (editor abbreviated Ed.), Book Title. (article pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Spencer, J. (2010). The ethical basis for termination. In J. Kelp (Ed.), Ethics in Business (pp 282-292).

New York: Hampton Press.

Dissertation:

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Dissertation Title (Doctoral dissertation). Available from (Database). (UMI No.)

Smith, J.V. (2010). Relationship between Board of Directors and Executive Offers: Effect on Turnover. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI no. 1234567)

Newspaper Article (this is the only instance where you will use p. or pp. in front of the page numbers on the References page):

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Name of Newspaper, p. or pp. page #(s).

Jones, S. (2009, April 12). MRU opens new campus. Miami Observer, p. A3.

Magazine Article :

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title, Magazine Name, volume (issue #, if applicable), page #(s).

Smith, J. (2009, May 1). Florida Power understates earnings. Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

If a magazine or journal article has more than two authors, follow the rule for books regarding number of authors.

Magazine Article with No Author:

Article title. (Year, Month Day). Magazine Name, volume (issue #, if applicable), page #(s).

Florida Power understates earnings. (2009, May 1). Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

Journal Article:

Author, A.A. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Name, volume (issue #), page #(s).

Johnson, J. (2010). The undergraduate student population of Miami Regional University’s graduating class of 2018. Journal of Education Statistics, 1(2), 200-211.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

APA recommends that, when a digital object identifier (DOI) is available, the number be included for

both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by the International DOI Foundation and the publisher to identify content and provide a link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made available electronically. All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. i.e.

doi:10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online Database with a DOI:

The MRU Online has many scholarly databases such as EBSCO Host, Academic Search Elite, LIRN,

etc.

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Article title. Journal name, volume (issue #), page #(s). DOI

Johnson, J. (2010). The undergraduate student population of Miami Regional University’s graduating class of 2018. Journal of Education Statistics, 1(2), 200-211. doi:10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online Database without a DOI:

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require a URL.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume #. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2010). A nurse’s response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Ethics, 8.

Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

INTERNET SOURCES – Must give author’s name if available, last update/copyright date, retrieval date, or complete URL . DO NOT ONLY LIST URL for Webpage sources.

If author given:

Author, A.A. if known. (Year, Month Day). Title of section. Retrieved from (website address).

Grant, C. (2010). Why go to college? Retrieved from http://www.college/rev.Q&A.html

If no author is given, begin with article title:

Article name. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from (website address).

Shark attack. (2010, January). Retrieved from http://www.allaboutsharks.com/attacks

Newspaper Article Retrieved from the Newspaper’s Website:

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name. Retrieved from (website address).

Greenwood, L. C. (2009, May 3). Education loans at all-time low. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com

Article in an Online Only Periodical:

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Periodical Title, volume(issue). Retrieved from (website address)

Kobb, M. (2010). The New South. Lifestyles, 5(2). Retrieved from http://www.lifestyles.com/south.html

Article in an Online Encyclopedia or Other Reference Work:

Reference article name. (Year, Month Day). In Name of Reference Source. Retrieved from (website address).

Scholar. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/scholar

MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES

Organization/Company Website:

Author, A.A. if known. (Year, Month Day). Title of section. Retrieved from (website address).

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2010). About us. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/

Government Publication Print Version:

Governmental agency. (Year of Publication). Title of Publication. (Publication #.) Place of publication: publisher.

U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Women in the labor force: A databook (2009 edition). (Report No. 1018). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Government Publication Electronic Version:

Governmental agency. (Year of Publication). Title of publication. (Publication #.) Place of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Women in the labor force: A databook (2009 edition). (Report No. 1018). Retrieved from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Labor Force Statistics website: http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2009.htm

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TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT.

TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT.

Running Head: APA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE 1

MIAMI REGIONAL COLLEGE

APA Style Manual, 6th Edition

Quick Reference Guide

APA style has a series of rules about Format, Writing Style, Citations, and References

FORMAT

The format is a standardized method of writing a paper. Your paper should include four major sections: the title page, abstract, main body of text, and references.

Spacing

Lines are double-spaced, including title page and references page.

Font

Times New Roman, 12 point

Margins

1” for top, bottom, right and left margins on all pages, left justified. Indent first line of paragraphs a half inch (12 spaces). Do not use extra double spacing between paragraphs.

TITLE PAGE (PAGE 1) – Contains the following information, centered on the page, double spaced:

Running Head and page number

Full Title

Writer

Course

Dr. Uliana Gancea

Miami Regional College

Date

Title

Upper and lower case letters and no more than 12 words.

Running Head

Top of first page only. To create a running head, insert page number flush right. Then type “Running

head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left.

ABSTRACT (PAGE 2) – Center the word “Abstract”. Begin writing the abstract on the next line. Do not indent. Abstract should include the research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis and conclusions, implications of research, and future work. Abstract should be a single paragraph and should have maximum 150 words.

Header

Top of every page. To create a page header, insert page numbers flush right. Then type “TITLE OF

YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left.

WRITING STYLE

TEXT (PAGE 3 -?) – The text of your paper should begin on page 3 unless your professor requires a table of contents.

Point of View and Voice

You should write using the third person point of view (“The study showed…”). Papers should be written

using the active voice (“Wakowski (2010) conducted research…”.

Clarity and Conciseness

Papers should be written in clear and concise language. Avoid wordy or unnecessarily complex sentences. Sentences should be specific with enough details to adequately help readers understand. Eliminate unnecessary words and condense information.

Use simple, descriptive adjectives and plain language that does not risk confusing the reader. Avoid slang and jargon.

Avoid using language suggesting something has been proven, such as “proves” or “proof”. Research papers do not prove theory or hypotheses. Use words like “suggests” or “indicates”.

Biased Language

Avoid biased forms of language concerning race, disability, and sexuality. Avoid using labels to identify

individuals or groups of people. Instead call people what they prefer to be called. It is preferable to not use pronouns because they can confuse the reader. Replace pronouns with nouns (person, individual, etc) or use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels (“elderly people” rather than just “the elderly”).

Headings

There are 5 heading levels in APA to separate and classify paper sections. The 6th edition of the APA

manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:

APA Headings

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2

Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3

Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period.

4

Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.

5

Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.

APA Q U I CK RE F ER E NCE G U I DE 3

Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which do not, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:

Methods (Level 1) Site of Study (Level 2) Participant Population (Level 2)

Teachers. (Level 3)

Students. (Level 3)

Results (Level 1)

Spatial Ability (Level 2)

Test One. (level 3)

Teachers with experience. (Level 4)

Teachers in Training. (Level 4)

Test Two. (Level 3)

Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2)

In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper. Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.

Heading information courtesy of OWL. Purdue University Online Writing Lab [OWL]. (2009, October 24). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved

October 29, 2009, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/printable/560/

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

In-text citations are placed in parentheses within the text of the paper to document source of information. In-text citations include work that is either a direct quotation or paraphrase.

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes > Quotation marks, page # Paraphrases > No quotation marks, no page #

DIRECT QUOTATION – using exact words from a source

Use quotation marks “ ”

Include page # or paragraph #

Book, Magazine, Journal article:

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #) Ex: (Smith, 2009, p. 12)

Webpage article w Multiple Authors with TWO authors:

(Author, copyright OR last update, para. #) Ex: (Jones, 2009, para. 3)

Webpage article with NO author:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright OR last update, para. #) Ex: (“Pizzas,” 2009, para. 4)

Multiple Authors with TWO authors: Ex: (Smith & Jones, 2002, p. 3)

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #)

Multiple Authors with 3 – 5 authors:

Cite each author the first time the citation appears Ex. (Jones, Smith, Collins, & Krantz, 2002,

p. 3)

In subsequent citations, cite only the last name Ex. (Jones et al., 2002, p. 1)

of the first author, followed by “et al.”

More Than 6 authors:

Cite only the last name of the first author Ex. (Jones et al., 2002, p. 1)

followed by “et al.” every time the citation

appears

Quoting an Entire Sentence:

Author’s name not given within the sentence:

(Author, publication date, page #)

“A significant number of business professionals are returning to college to earn advanced degrees in order to

increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (Smith, 2002, p. 101).

Author’s name used to introduce a quote:

Introductory phrase with author name (publication date) . . . (page #)

According to Smith (2002), “A significant number of business professionals are returning to college to earn advanced degrees in order to increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (p. 101).

Quoting Part of a Sentence:

Author’s name not given within the sentence:

For many adults, the commitment to obtaining a college degree is motivated by a desire to “increase their earning

power and potential for advancement” (Smith, 2002, p. 101).

Author’s name used to introduce a quote :

Smith (2002) explains that for many adults, the commitment to obtaining a college degree is motivated by a desire

to “increase their earning power and potential for advancement” (p. 101).

NOTE : Before using an author’s name to introduce a quote or paraphrase, you must first introduce the

author to identify this author’s expertise. For example, you might say:

James Smith (2002), author of The New College Landscape, explains that “today’s college student is often an

adult professional with over five years’ experience, married, a parent, and an active volunteer” (p. 12).

Quoting 40 or More Words:

Using block quotation format and indent QUOTE ONLY .5 inch from left margin – do not use quotation marks

Author’s name not given within the sentence used to introduce a quote:

Adult students are often more dedicated to achieving their college education than many traditional students.

Most adult students who make the choice to return to college are accustomed to prioritizing their tasks. These individuals have experienced the demands of juggling their responsibilities and are more willing

and able to take the initiative to succeed in their academic career. (Smith, 2002, p. 121)

Many adults who have excelled in their professional lives know how to apply themselves in their new academic life.

Author’s name used to introduce a quote:

Smith (2002) points out that adult students are often more dedicated to achieving their college education than many traditional students.

Most adult students who make the choice to return to college are accustomed to prioritizing their tasks. These individuals have experienced the demands of juggling their responsibilities and are more willing

and able to take the initiative to succeed in their academic career. (p. 121)

Many adults who have excelled in their professional lives know how to apply themselves in their new academic life.

NOTE : After the initial introduction of the author, you may then use the author’s last name only to introduce the quote or paraphrase, a technique that adds credibility and authority to your sources.

Citing Personal Communication – For letters, memos, e-mail, interviews, cite source in text only. Do not list on References page.

S.U.Varnes (personal communication, May 12, 2001) acknowledges …

PARAPHRASE – Interpreting an idea expressed by author, by restating passage in your own words

No quotation marks used

No page or paragraph #

Book, Magazine, Journal article:

(Author’s last name, publication date) Ex: (Smith, 2009)

Webpage article w/author:

(Author, copyright date OR last update) Ex: (Jones, 2009)

Webpage article with NO author:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright date OR last update) Ex: (“Pizzas,” 2009)

Multiple Authors: with TWO authors: Ex: (Smith & Jones, 2002)

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #)

Multiple Authors: with 3 – 5 authors:

Cite each author the first time the citation appears Ex. (Jones, Smith, Collins, & Krantz, 2002)

In subsequent citations, cite only the last name Ex. (Jones et al., 2002)

of the first author, followed by “et al.”

More Than six (6) authors:

Cite only the last name of the first author followed by Ex. (Jones et al., 2002)

“et al.” every time the citation appears

Author’s name not given within paraphrased sentence:

(Author, publication date – no page #)

The revitalization of many urban neighborhoods has resulted in a substantial increase in property values (Lentz,

2003).

Author’s name used to introduce paraphrase:

Introductory phrase with author name (publication date) . . . (page #)

Urban planner James Lentz (2003) asserts that the revitalization of many urban neighborhoods has resulted in a substantial increase in property values.

PARAPHRASE – DON’T PLAGIARIZE!

Plagiarism is the “use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one’s own original work” (Stepchyshyn & Nelson, 2007, p. 65). Paraphrasing is reading the work of another author, interpreting it into your own words, and then citing the original source. Three or more consecutive words directly from a source are considered a Direct Quote, and must be cited as a Direct Quote.

Original by author James Baker, published 2003:

A serious dilemma often faced by employees when considering changing jobs, even when the new position is an improvement in their current employment situation, is whether to risk a change in their health insurance coverage, particularly for individuals with pre-existing conditions.

Plagiarism – Passage rewritten, but with only a few words changed:

A serious problem often faced by employees when thinking about changing jobs, even when the new job is better than their current job, is whether to risk getting different health insurance, especially for people with pre-existing conditions (Baker, 2003).

Paraphrased – Passage re-written to express the idea of the author, but in your own words:

For many employees with health problems, often making the decision of whether or not to change jobs is based on the need to maintain the same health insurance coverage and not on the prospect of a better career opportunity (Baker, 2003).

RULE OF THUMB for Using Sources:

Never begin a paragraph with a quote, end a paragraph with a quote, or use back to back quotes –

OFFER YOUR ANALYSIS! DON’T LET THE QUOTE SPEAK FOR ITSELF!

IN-TEXT CITATION – WEBPAGES

The same rules for regular in-text citations apply to webpages, except that page numbers are replaced by paragraph numbers, which are found by counting paragraphs starting at the top of the page.

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes > Quotation marks, para. # Paraphrases > No quotation marks, no para. #

DIRECT QUOTES:

(Author, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

PARAPHRASES:

(Author, update/copyright date)

1. If no author — give shortened article title. If no article title –give website name (NOT URL!)

2. If no date for website — put n.d.

3. Hand number paragraphs — when citing Direct Quotes

Direct Quote

(Author, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

The use of “pizza toppings that seem bizarre to current tastes, such as squid and octopus, were common

in the fishing areas of the Mediterranean sea” (Smith, 1998, para. 5).

Direct Quote – from article entitled “Pizzas of the World,” from website called PizzaLore, No author given:

(“Shortened article title”, update/copyright date, para. #)

The use of “pizza toppings that seem bizarre to current tastes, such as squid and octopus, were common in the fishing areas of the Mediterranean Sea” (“Pizzas,” 1998, para. 5).

Direct Quote – from website called PizzaLore, No author or article title given:

(Website name, update/copyright date, paragraph #)

Many culinary archaeologists have determined that “the making of pizza was actually an accident”

(PizzaLore, 1998, para. 5).

REFERENCES

All research papers must contain a reference page with is a list of references (all sources cited in the paper,) starting on a new page after the body of the paper.

The References page should contain full publication information (see examples below). Only sources cited in the body of the paper should appear on the References page.

REFERENCE PAGE FORMAT

Center title “References” typed lower case, no underline, no italics

Page numbering should be continued in the upper right corner of the Reference page.

For each entry in the list, the first line begins at the left margin and all following lines are indented a half inch or twelve spaces.

Lines are double-spaced.

Alphabetize by first word of entry (author’s last name; title if no author)

If there are two or more entries for the same author, arrange by year of publication with the earliest one first. If the entries are for the same year, use lowercase letters (a, b, c) with the year.

Do not utilize any underlining or quotation marks for titles. Book titles, magazine/journal titles and volume (issue) number are to be in italics only.

Websites are not to be underlined. Hyperlinks should be removed.

Capitalize journal or magazine titles.

Capitalize only the first word of the title of a book or article, except for proper nouns.

EXAMPLES – REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES

(Examples are single-spaced; actual reference list is double spaced.) The following entries are examples

of the most commonly used research sources. Refer directly to the APA Manual for additional examples of Reference list entries.

Book with One Author:

Author, A.A. (year of publication). Book Title. City published, State Initials (if applicable – see APA Style Guide, states are not always included): Name of Publisher.

Jones, S. (2010). The Jones Chronicles. Boston: Smith Publishing Company.

Book with Two or More Authors:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year of Publication). Book Title. City published, State Initials (if applicable): Name of

Publisher.

Jones, S., & Smith, J. (2010). The History of Miami Regional University. Washington, DC: Jones and Smith

Publishing.

Book with Three to Six Authors:

Miller, J., Kramer, P., Cane, L. & Font, M. (2010). How to Be a Business Partner. New York: Harlan

Publishers.

Book with More Than Six authors:

Logan, P., Smith, U., Lenz, R., Tome, M., Fox, P., Jones, M., et al. (2010). Elements of Real Estate

Transactions. Boston: Ridgeworth Publishers.

Edited Book:

Jones, S., & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2010). The History of Miami Regional University (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Jones and Smith Publishing.

Article/Essay in an Edited Book:

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Article/essay title. Book editor’s name (editor abbreviated Ed.), Book Title. (article pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Spencer, J. (2010). The ethical basis for termination. In J. Kelp (Ed.), Ethics in Business (pp 282-292).

New York: Hampton Press.

Dissertation:

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Dissertation Title (Doctoral dissertation). Available from (Database). (UMI No.)

Smith, J.V. (2010). Relationship between Board of Directors and Executive Offers: Effect on Turnover. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI no. 1234567)

Newspaper Article (this is the only instance where you will use p. or pp. in front of the page numbers on the References page):

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Name of Newspaper, p. or pp. page #(s).

Jones, S. (2009, April 12). MRU opens new campus. Miami Observer, p. A3.

Magazine Article :

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title, Magazine Name, volume (issue #, if applicable), page #(s).

Smith, J. (2009, May 1). Florida Power understates earnings. Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

If a magazine or journal article has more than two authors, follow the rule for books regarding number of authors.

Magazine Article with No Author:

Article title. (Year, Month Day). Magazine Name, volume (issue #, if applicable), page #(s).

Florida Power understates earnings. (2009, May 1). Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

Journal Article:

Author, A.A. (year of publication). Article title. Journal Name, volume (issue #), page #(s).

Johnson, J. (2010). The undergraduate student population of Miami Regional University’s graduating class of 2018. Journal of Education Statistics, 1(2), 200-211.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

APA recommends that, when a digital object identifier (DOI) is available, the number be included for

both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by the International DOI Foundation and the publisher to identify content and provide a link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made available electronically. All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. i.e.

doi:10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online Database with a DOI:

The MRU Online has many scholarly databases such as EBSCO Host, Academic Search Elite, LIRN,

etc.

Author, A.A. (Year of Publication). Article title. Journal name, volume (issue #), page #(s). DOI

Johnson, J. (2010). The undergraduate student population of Miami Regional University’s graduating class of 2018. Journal of Education Statistics, 1(2), 200-211. doi:10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online Database without a DOI:

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require a URL.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume #. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2010). A nurse’s response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Ethics, 8.

Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

INTERNET SOURCES – Must give author’s name if available, last update/copyright date, retrieval date, or complete URL . DO NOT ONLY LIST URL for Webpage sources.

If author given:

Author, A.A. if known. (Year, Month Day). Title of section. Retrieved from (website address).

Grant, C. (2010). Why go to college? Retrieved from http://www.college/rev.Q&A.html

If no author is given, begin with article title:

Article name. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from (website address).

Shark attack. (2010, January). Retrieved from http://www.allaboutsharks.com/attacks

Newspaper Article Retrieved from the Newspaper’s Website:

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name. Retrieved from (website address).

Greenwood, L. C. (2009, May 3). Education loans at all-time low. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com

Article in an Online Only Periodical:

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Periodical Title, volume(issue). Retrieved from (website address)

Kobb, M. (2010). The New South. Lifestyles, 5(2). Retrieved from http://www.lifestyles.com/south.html

Article in an Online Encyclopedia or Other Reference Work:

Reference article name. (Year, Month Day). In Name of Reference Source. Retrieved from (website address).

Scholar. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/scholar

MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES

Organization/Company Website:

Author, A.A. if known. (Year, Month Day). Title of section. Retrieved from (website address).

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2010). About us. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/

Government Publication Print Version:

Governmental agency. (Year of Publication). Title of Publication. (Publication #.) Place of publication: publisher.

U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Women in the labor force: A databook (2009 edition). (Report No. 1018). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Government Publication Electronic Version:

Governmental agency. (Year of Publication). Title of publication. (Publication #.) Place of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Women in the labor force: A databook (2009 edition). (Report No. 1018). Retrieved from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Labor Force Statistics website: http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2009.htm

TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT.

TOPIC: BREAST CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY TREATMENT